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住建部:疫情期间供排水与水环境运行管理建议

2020-03-03 10:23来源:住建部水专项办、城镇水务产业化 
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1

准确把控城镇污水与水环境系统新型冠状病毒暴露风险防范的关键环节

xinxingguanzhuangbingdudezhuyaochuanbotujingweihuxidaofeimochuanbohejiechuchuanbo,erchengzhenwushuideshouji、shusongyuchuliguocheng,xiangduifengbiyuduli,gongzhongbuzhijiejiechuwushui、wuni,bingqiezaiyiqingqijiangongzhongfangkongyishixianzhuzengqiang,shequhegonggongquyujiaqianglexiaoducuoshi,zaijuzhuqu、gonggongjianzhuyijishizhenggongyongpaishuixitongfuheshejiyuyunweibiaozhun,zaishengshuiliyongguanliguifandeqingkuangxia,tongguochengzhenwushuiyushuihuanjingxitongfashenggongzhongxinxingguanzhuangbingdubaoluyuganrandekenengxinghenxiao。erchengzhenwushuiyushuihuanjingxitongdeyunxingcaozuoguochengzhong,congyerenyuancunzaizhijiejiechu、feimojiqirongjiaoxirudengtujingdebaolufengxian。

因此,疫情期间,有必要全面提升安全防护级别,重点加强市政管网、污泥处理间、输送泵站、污水处理厂进水泵房、格栅间、曝气沉砂池、脱水机房等风险点的防控和运行操作人员的暴露风险防范。

2

我国现行城镇污水处理厂出水与再生水水质标准,满足新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情期间的卫生学风险控制要求

中黄大片免费播放视频woguo《chengzhenwushuichulichangwuranwupaifangbiaozhun》gb 18918-2002guidingleweishengxuezhibiaoyaoqiu,jidaibiaoxijun、bingdudengbingyuanweishengwukongzhichengdudefendachangjunqunzhibiaozhi。qizhong,yijiabiaozhunweizaishengshuidejibenshuizhiyaoqiu,zhibiaozhi1000ge/l,shihepairuguojiaheshengquedingdezhongdianliuyujihubo、shuikudengfengbi、banfengbishuiyu;yijibiaozhunbbiaozhun,zhibiaozhi10000ge/l,shihepairugb3838dibiaoshuiiiileigongnengshuiyu(huadingdeyinyongshuiyuanbaohuquheyouyongquchuwai)、gb3097haishuierleigongnengshuiyu。woguochengzhenwushuichulichanganzhaogaibiaozhunyaoqiu,junshezhilexiangyingdechushuixiaodujiyaojichubeisheshi。

实际运行中,通过浊度或悬浮固体浓度的控制,消毒剂量的调整,该指标的平均值会远低于排放标准限值,在污水生物处理及深度处理工段,目前普遍采用的较长泥龄的活性污泥本身具有多个数量级(log数)的病原体消除(灭活)效果,能够满足病毒等病原微生物的灭活程度控制要求。另外,新型冠状病毒属于有包膜病毒,在污水系统中的存活能力低于无包膜的肠道病毒,且更易于消毒灭活。因此,经过消毒处理达标的出水排入接纳水体,出水的卫生学风险控制能得到保障,不会增加水体环境中的病毒暴露风险。

在再生水利用方面,《城市污水再生利用景观环境用水水质》GB/T 18921-2019规定的粪大肠菌群限值为1000个/L,其中水景类为3个/L。该标准还对与消毒效果密切相关的浊度和色度指标有严格要求。《城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质》GB/T 18920-2002中规定的总大肠菌群为3个/L。中黄大片免费播放视频再生水净化处理工程中,通常还有多重的消毒技术保障,如加氯、紫外、臭氧等措施的联用。

因此,确保再生处理与消毒工艺正常运行,能保障再生水利用的卫生学风险控制。从更高的安全防范要求以及公众心理接受角度考虑,对于再生水用于景观河道用水的,应当设置警示牌;在疫情严重地区,建议暂停可能与人群密切接触的再生水利用方式,并制定严格的再生水误饮、误用和错接的防范措施

污水厂.jpg

3

水专项城镇水污染控制与水环境综合整治技术成果可全面支撑新型冠状病毒疫情期间的污水处理需

水专项“城镇水污染控制与水环境综合整治”主题,重点围绕国家水污染防治重大战略的科技需求,通过持续开展关键技术攻关和应用示范,在城镇排水管网优化与改造、城镇污水高标准处理与利用、城镇污泥安全处理与处置、城市黑臭水体治理、城镇降雨径流污染控制、海绵城市建设与管理、城镇水体修复与生态恢复等方面形成了一批成套技术和可行工程方案,在长江流域、京津冀、粤港澳等重点区域开展了示范应用,已在全国推广应用于1000余座工程,运行效果完全满足国家及更严格的地方相关标准要求。疫情期间,水专项提供的成套技术方法、工程技术方案和示范应用工程,可为城镇污水处理和水环境治理提供重要的技术保障。

u=168300078,3564392916&fm=26&gp=0.jpg

4

新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情期间,加强城镇污水与水环境系统病毒暴露风险防范工作的注意事项与对策措施

1.高度重视城镇污水处理系统安全运行保障和从业人员病毒暴露风险防控

yiqingqijian,xiangguanbumenyingjiaqianghewanshanxinxigoutongjizhi,quebaoxinxigongkai,baozhengchengzhenwushuishoujiyuchuliqiyenenggoujishizhunquehuoqudingdianjiuzhidian、jizhonggeliqu、yiliaofeishuichulidengxiangguanxinxi。yaojiaqiangyaoji、qicaiqijudengshengchanwuzidebaogong,kaipishebeiweixiu、gonghuo、xianchangweixiudelvsetongdao,baochiwushuichulishengchanyunyingwuzi、yaoji、wuniyunshutongchang,bingnarufeichangshiqizhongyaowuziyunshubaozhangguanlitixi,quebaowushuishoujiguanwanghechulisheshizhengchangyunxing。yaogaoduzhongshichengzhenwushuiyushuihuanjingxitongcongyerenyuandebingdubaolufengxianfangfangongzuo,jiangkouzhao、humujing、fanghufudengfanghuwuzhinaruzhongyaofangyiwuzidegongyingbaozhangtixi。

2.切实做好运行管理风险点和操作人员的病毒暴露风险防范工作

yaozhongdianjiaqiangshizhengguanwangweihu、chengzhenwushuichuliheshuihuanjingsheshiyunxingguanliguochengzhongcongyerenyuandebingdubaolufengxianfangkong。

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3.务必强化城镇市政管网污水冒溢的防控与排除

yiqingqijian,bixuquebaoshizhengguanwangxitongguandaochangtong,tebieshijuzhuxiaoqu、dingdianjiuzhidian、jizhonggeliquheyiliaojigouzhoubiandeguandaoyaobaochitongchangzuodaobumaoyi。

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4.提倡采用自动采样在线检测,视频监控替代人工巡检

城镇污水处理厂的进水泵房及预处理工段是最有可能造成病毒等病原体暴露并引发操作人员感染的潜在风险点。根据美国环境保护署2018年发布的《污水收集和处理系统中高致病病原体的暴露接触途径》报告,进水泵房和预处理工段气溶胶中病毒及细菌浓度最高,与深度处理工段相差约3个数量级。针对暴露风险,部分发达国家对污水处理厂运行操作人员提出了严格的卫生学安全防范要求及日常防控措施。因此,疫情期间,必须加强防范,减少污水原水的人工采样检测、预处理工段的现场巡检,尽可能采用自动采样器、在线检测和视频监控巡检,操作人员尽量不在相对密闭的空间内停留,排出的栅渣和沙砾要及时喷洒消毒剂。确需人工采样及巡检的,操作人员应采取严格防护措施,确保万无一失。上述措施同样适用于合流制溢流调蓄池和一体化污水处理设施。

5.保障处理系统正常运行,避免过度投加消毒剂

城镇污水处理厂应严格执行国家、行业相关规程和标准,结合现场实际情况,做好运行管理工作。加强消毒工艺前序工艺单元的管理控制,确保消毒工艺发挥效能,有效控制出水或再生水的卫生学风险。为避免过度消毒造成对水环境生态的不利影响,非极特殊情况,不必要过量投加消毒药剂。在疫情严重地域,条件允许时,执行一级B标准的污水处理厂,可考虑适当提高消毒剂量,尽量达到一级A标准限值的消毒程度。要关注疫情防控期间因大量使用强氧化性消毒剂加剧进水碳源不足的问题,加强出水TN、TP指标的监控,必要时投加外部碳源或相应提高药剂投加量,保障生物处理系统的脱氮除磷能力。

6.优化调整工艺运行模式与参数,确保污泥妥善处理处置

城镇污水处理厂污泥处理处置是相对薄弱的环节,疫情期间的污泥妥善处理处置尤为重要。初沉污泥直接来自污水的沉淀过程,其病原体浓度相对较高,疫情期间,初沉池宜超越方式运行。可适度提高生物池活性污泥浓度,延长实际运行泥龄,以进一步提高病毒等病原体的去除率。对运行维护和巡检人员要采取严格的防护措施,并加强污泥脱水间的通风与消毒。脱水污泥要日产日清,确保妥善处理,有条件的污水处理厂尽量采用热干化或者石灰碱法稳定化等方式进一步处理。污泥的存储及运输过程应密闭,必要时适当喷洒消毒剂。

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